Glossary

Abnormal: Not normal; different from what is considered normal

Bladder: The organ that stores urine

Bladder cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in the inner lining of the bladder)

Catheter: A flexible tube used to deliver fluids into or withdraw fluids from the body

Cell: In biology, the smallest unit that can live on its own. It makes up all living organisms and tissues in the body

Chemotherapy: Treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing them or by stopping them from dividing

Complete response: The disappearance of all signs of cancer in response to treatment. This does not always mean the cancer has been cured. Also called complete remission

FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor): FGFR helps cells to grow, survive, and multiply; genetic alterations in FGFR are thought to be important in the development of some bladder cancers

Gene: Functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parents to offspring. Genes are pieces or sequences of DNA

Hyperphosphatemia: Having a high level of phosphate in your blood

Immune system: A complex network of cells, tissues, organs, and the substances they make that helps the body fight infections and other diseases

Immunotherapy: A type of therapy that uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer

Infusion: A method of putting fluids, including drugs, into the bloodstream. Also called intravenous infusion

Locally advanced: Cancer that has spread from where it started to nearby tissue or lymph nodes

Lymph node: Small, bean-shaped structures that help fight disease. They are located throughout the body

Median: A statistics term; the middle value in a set of measurements

Metastasis: The spread of cancer cells from the place where they first formed to another part of the body

Mutate: To change the genetic material of a cell. The changes (mutations) can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect

Objective response rate (ORR): The percentage of patients whose measurable tumors disappear (complete response) or decrease in size (partial response) after treatment

Ophthalmologist: A doctor who has special training in diagnosing and treating eye problems, including injury and disease

Partial response: A decrease in the size of a tumor, or in the extent of cancer in the body, in response to treatment. Also called partial remission

Phosphate: A naturally occurring mineral in the body found in the bones and teeth

Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors

Response: In medicine, an improvement related to treatment

Retina: The light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye that receive images and send them as electric signals through the optic nerve to the brain

Tissue sample: A sample of tumor tissue

Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer)

Urothelial cancer: Cancer that begins in cells called urothelial cells that line the urethra, bladder, ureters, renal pelvis, and some other organs. Urothelial cells are also called transitional cells

Urothelium: The inner lining of the bladder